Diabetics sometimes suffer from diabetes for several decades. Therefore, it is important to know the implications of, for example, neglected care.
A special eye mark I draw on the question of what insulin is actually and show it, why it does not work in both diabetic types (1 and 2) as in healthy people. Furthermore, I try to give an overview of the topic of diabetes.
I also try to show what has to be considered after the diagnosis of diabetes and explain which consequential damages can cause diabetes. This should also stimulate something to deter and better prevention, which should not end in such bad things as an amputation, heart attack or blindness.
- Diabetes is a disorder of the human metabolism
- In diabetes one speaks of type 1 and 2
- Diabetes type 1 patients suffer from the fact that the body no longer produces insulin.
- In type 2 diabetes, the body can no longer use the insulin sufficiently.
- There are several signs that indicate you are suffering from diabetes. Here one distinguishes between diabetes type 1 and 2.
- Diabetes tests can confirm if you really have diabetes.
- The goal of a diabetes-friendly diet is to lower the blood glucose long-term HbA1c.
- Diabetes can cause complications, some of which can be quite problematic.
What is diabetes and how does it come about?
Diabetes is the disorder of human metabolism, which is the main feature of over-sugar. That is why diabetes mellitus is also called diabetes.
In diabetes, the blood sugar regulation is disturbed and it comes to metabolic disorders. Often the carbohydrate metabolism as well as the fat and protein metabolism are affected.
Insulin plays an important role in diabetes as it is for the just mentioned carbohydrate. Fat and protein metabolism is responsible. It is a homon which allows the absorption of sugar into the cells.
They use the sugar (glucose) as an energy source. The sugar is an important chemical messenger, which is transported through the blood and thereby regulates important body functions.
Responsible for the production of insulin is the pancreas. The beta cells are the cells of the pancreas. These react to elevated blood sugar levels, which can occur after meals, for example, and produce insulin.
A healthy body now absorbs the energy gained from the food and then the blood sugar level drops again. Thus, it can be said that our body can not process and utilize the food taken without insulin.
Diabetics now have the problem that there is a disruption in the release of insulin. Insofar as the pancreas now produces no insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the cells can no longer absorb it (diabetes type 2), it leads to a strong disruption of the metabolic balance. In other words, this is the cause of diabetes
Tip: A normal blood glucose level in adults is between 70 and 110 milligrams per deciliter of blood
What are diabetes types?
Diabetes is divided into Types 1 and 2. We now explain what the respective peculiarities of these two types are:
Type 1 diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the body no longer produces insulin. This is usually associated with autoimmune disease. For this reason, daily insulin must be injected. Insulin is so important because it ensures that the sugar that has been absorbed by the food is transported to the body’s cells where it is converted into energy for the body.
Insulin treatment now ensures that the blood sugar level does not fluctuate greatly. This treatment is important because it can cause hypoglycaemia.
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in childhood or adolescence and is often associated with the already mentioned autoimmune disease. Its own immune system attacks the body’s own insulin production, which takes place in the pancreas. In this case, the insulin-producing cells are attacked. (Betta cells).
Type 2 diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, the body can no longer sufficiently use the insulin produced in the pancreas. This, in turn, sooner or later leads to a chronic metabolic disease. The sugar level in the blood is increased.
The reason for this is insulin resistance. The body cells do not respond very well to the hormone insulin and it does not do justice to its task of forwarding the sugar molecules from the blood into the cells.
In the further course, the pancreas releases more insulin and tries to compensate for the low level of insulin in the body cells. However, as the body can no longer process insulin to an appropriate level, it causes the insulin to accumulate.
This in turn can lead to certain effects that are often associated with certain sequelae. Obesity and lack of exercise further increase this problem.
Mostly, type 2 diabetes occurs in adulthood, and often after the age of 40. In the past, type 2 diabetes has been referred to as old-age diabetes. Obesity and lack of exercise, however, can lead to suffering from type 2 diabetes much earlier.
The danger of type 2 diabetes lies in the fact that neglected care can lead to one of the conditional sequelae. Known consequence disorders are: heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, retinal damage and erectile dysfunction.
Important values: Blood sugar test (fasting blood sugar), oral glucose tolerance test + HbA1c value (long-term blood sugar)
What signs or symptoms are there in diabetes?
The signs or symptoms that indicate that you have diabetes differ significantly from types 1 and 2. Therefore, we consider this separately:
Diabetes Type 1:
- unpleasant itching
- very strong thirst
- pronounced urgency
- sudden weight loss
- limited eyesight
- often nausea and vomiting
Type 2 diabetes
- Common: fatigue / weakness, infections
- Diagnosis often causes diabetic complications
- Classic symptoms: eg frequent urination or feeling thirsty are rather rare
- Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed at the earliest 8-10 years after the onset of the disease
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Here too, we differentiate the diagnosis in type 1 diabetes from that of type 2.
Type 1 diabetes
A lack of insulin production (disturbed sugar metabolism) can be determined by measuring the fasting blood sugar value. The process that your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells can last for months to years without being determined by a routine medical check-up.
Fasting blood sugar only increases from the time that approximately 80 percent of beta cells are destroyed. For this reason, a blood glucose test also provides evidence of the damage to the insulin-producing beta cells only very late.
With the help of the island autoantibodies you can determine if an autoimmune process is ready or if it is in the making. This is because almost 100 percent of all newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes patients carry these islet autoantibodies.
- We can now conclude that type 1 diabetes is present when:
- the blood sugar value is 200 mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l) or higher
- the fasting blood glucose value of 126mg / dl (7.0 mmol / l) or more is in the venous plasma
- Blood glucose long term (HbA1C) is 6.5 percent (48 mmol / mol) or higher. However, this must be confirmed again by the doctor the following day so that the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes can be confirmed.
Type 2 diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, the elevated blood sugar level in the blood or urine is usually determined only during a routine examination. The doctor first asks about the complaints and illnesses that the patient suffers from and then performs a physical examination and a blood sugar measurement.
Several times blood is taken and a blood sugar measurement is made. The blood sample always takes place before the first day’s meal. Therefore, for 6-10 hours, nothing should be eaten first.
Furthermore, the HbA1c value in the blood can be measured. This indicates the average amount of blood sugar in the last two to three months. In addition to this method, it is often possible to detect sugar in the urine. If so, this indicates that you are suffering from type 2 diabetes.
How can a diabetes test tell if I have diabetes?
A diabetes test determines if you are suffering from diabetes. This can be determined by examining the blood and urine. If necessary, a so-called glucose tolerance test can also be carried out.
Important! A diabetes self-test is for your own orientation only. However, it never replaces the doctor’s visit and the doctor’s test.
Basically, there are three different tests and a value that can tell if someone is suffering from diabetes:
Measuring fasting blood sugar
To be able to measure the fasting blood sugar, the doctor must take blood and check this for the sugar value and the fats. This usually takes place in the morning.
The patient must appear sober. This means that it must have eaten at least 4 or better even 8 hours before nothing. It is also important that certain things have to be done away with during this time:
- Calorie drinks
- Black tea
Three values are very important:
- Blood sugar level in blood plasma less than 110 mg / dl
There is no diabetes here. However, people at risk of diabetes should continue to measure their blood sugar at regular intervals.
- Blood sugar in the blood plasma at least 126 mg / DL or more
If the blood sugar is at least 126 mg / dl or higher, diabetes is very likely. Add to this the fact that you suffer from symptoms typical of diabetes, such as tiredness, lethargy, or infection.
However, if this is not the case, then the next day a medical examination must take place again, which confirms or rejects this value. If the measured blood glucose level is also high the next day, then it is considered safe to suffer from diabetes.
- Blood sugar in the blood plasma between 110 and 125 mg / dl
Blood glucose levels between 110 and 125 mg / dl are considered borderline. Here, a pre-stage of diabetes already exist. Often there may be a sugar utilization disorder here. Whether this is present can be determined with an oral glucose tolerance test.
Oral glucose tolerance test
An oral glucose tolerance test is used when the blood glucose in the blood plasma is between 110 and 125 mg / dl. It serves for the early detection of diabetes.
With a blood sugar value between 110 and 125 mg / dl this is often only temporarily and not permanently increased. Therefore, sufficient preparation for the test is necessary.
On the three days before the examination, one should therefore eat normally and with sufficient carbohydrates. Smoking is not allowed during this time.
On the day of the test it is important to appear sober for the test. This means that you must not have eaten food in the 10 hours before. The test usually takes place in the morning before the first meal.
Content of the test:
- blood sample.
- Drink 75 grams of glucose, which is dissolved in 250 to 300 ml of water.
- Two hours after drinking, take a second blood sample.
- Doctor can determine from the blood glucose value that has formed in the two hours whether diabetes is present or whether a pre-diabetes or no diabetes is present.
Diabetes urine test
Normally, there is no or only little sugar in the urine. This is because the kidney retains the sugar in the blood filtration.
If it comes to the fact that the blood sugar level in the urine is increased, then the retention capacity of the kidney is no longer sufficient. The urine now contains sugar. Through a test strip (diabetes urine test) can now be determined whether there is an increased probability that you could have diabetes.
Important! A positive diabetes urine test is not yet confirmation of diabetes.
To confirm the result, you must always have a test performed by a doctor. He can then determine whether diabetes is really present by measuring fasting blood glucose and the oral glucose tolerance test.
The HbA1c value is a laboratory value in diabetes. This allows a look at the blood sugar adjustment of the last eight to twelve weeks. Hb stands for hemoglobin and is also referred to as a red blood pigment.
This is part of the red blood cells and binds oxygen. Hemoglobin first allows oxygen transport from the lungs to the organs. HbA1c is thus hemoglobin which has attached itself to the molecule sugar.
In healthy people, this value is around 30 mmol / mol. For type 1 diabetes, this is usually below 58 mmol / mol (7.5%). In type 2 diabetes, the values are again between 48 and 58 mmol / mol. between 6.5 and 7.5 percent.
The determination of the HbA1 value can also be used for the determination of diabetes. Roughly speaking, starting at 48 mmol / mol, i. at 6.5 percent diabetes.
What should be done after the diagnosis?
New diabetics usually have many questions after diagnosis and there is general uncertainty about how to proceed. Therefore, it is important to follow the following tips:
- It is now important to pay attention to his health. The goal is to stabilize blood glucose levels.
- The body changes. Diabetics with type 2 diabetes suffer from insulin resistance. At the same time, the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin is no longer functioning properly and there is an increase in blood sugar levels.
- Exercise and a healthy diet become very important. The goal of this is to get rid of excess weight and to compensate for an existing lack of exercise
- The big goal is to lose weight. It is clear that this is simply not possible or only possible to a limited extent. Therefore, it is recommended to participate in diabetic training. These help one to increase his own knowledge about diabetes. In addition, it is easier to get rid of such well-established habits.
- Tablets are usually not necessary at the onset of diabetes. The doctor often recommends a change in life and a control of the blood glucose long-term HbA1c. Important! Exercise and weight loss is important if you want to do without tablets in the long term.
- Treatment with insulin is usually necessary in type 2 diabetics after ten years of treatment. The healthier you live, the longer insulin treatment can be postponed.
How should diabetics feed?
In principle, diabetics can eat almost anything. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes diet plays a prominent role. This is because with enough exercise and a healthy diet, insulin resistance can improve which underlying diabetes type 2 disease.
Thus, in the diet, sugar is a normal part of the diet. It is not forbidden! A healthy diet in type 2 diabetes is defined as trying to lower the blood glucose long-term HbA1c.
As a result, an improvement in the blood pressure as well as the fixed blood values can be achieved. Movement and weight loss are important for the success of the measure.
One should abstain from losing weight too fast, as in most cases this will produce a yo-yo effect.
45 to 60 percent of the daily required amounts of energy should be taken in the form of carbohydrates. Fats should be 35 percent in daily consumption and protein between 10 and 20 percent.
Important! Diabetics who inject insulin need to know how many carbohydrates the food contains. This is especially the case because you have to calculate how much insulin is needed to be able to catch the blood sugar increases after meals.
Consequential damages of diabetes
Diabetes can lead to consequential damage. These are listed below:
- Cardiovascular system: heart attack, stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
The transport of oxygen and nutrients to the organs is limited because the high blood sugar level damages the vessel walls and thereby restricts blood flow. This can lead to the formation of clots that increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. In addition, if you suffer from circulatory disorders it can come to the peripheral arterial disease.
- sequelae of the eyes: diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy initially takes place unnoticed. Only at a later stage of the disease does it lead to visual disturbances in the form of red spots, red veils, as well as blurred or blurred vision. Furthermore, there may be a detachment of the retina, which in extreme cases can even lead to blindness.
- Nerves: diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathy often occurs after a long time. It can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy, in which the peripheral nerves are affected and it may lead to a disturbance of touch and pain perception. It can trigger a diabetic foot. As a rule, approximately 25% of all type 2 diabetes patients contract diabetic foot.
- Feet: Diabetic foot
Circulatory disorders and damage to the nerves contribute to the development of a diabetic foot. In this case, pain, heat and touch stimuli on the feet are barely perceived. Without daily care and control, it can quickly lead to foot injuries, which can quickly spread to infection. In extreme cases, this can even lead to the amputation of the toes or of the entire foot or lower leg.
Important! Daily foot care can prevent amputation.
- diabetic nephropathy
In diabetic nephropathy, the walls of small blood vessels thicken. This is because their filter system is leaking. Thus, very small protein molecules called albumin can be lost to the metabolism and slip through this filter. In the higher stage this can lead to disorders of the water and salt balance and an increasing blood pressure.
Important! Can lead to kidney failure and make an artificial blood wash (dialysis) necessary.
- Consequences of the sexual organs: sexual disorders, urinary tract and genital infections
Circulatory disorders as well as nerve damage can lead to sexual disorders in men and women. In men, this is expressed by a decreasing erectile ability. In women, in turn, it leads to sensory disturbances and a dry vaginal mucosa. It can also cause infection of the urinary tract and the genital region, which is more common in women than in men.